What is Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by Elevated levels of blood glucose
metabolism leading to a state of hyperglycemia and is associated with microvascular and macrovascular
complications in the long term. In this mechanism the hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your
cells to be stored and utilized for energy. There are different types of diabetes namely Type 1 diabetes, Type
2 diabetes, prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Untreated high blood sugar level from diabetes can affect
your nerves, eyes, kidneys and other organs. This article explains everything you need to know regarding
diabetes, types, causes, symptoms and diet

Types of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

Type-1 diabetes is a chronic disease, the people who are suffering from type 1 diabetes, cells in
pancreas that secret insulin are affected, and body is unable to secret insulin. Insulin is a hormone that keeps
your body’s cells to utilize glucose for energy. Your body gets glucose from your diet you consume. If the
cells have enough glucose, extra glucose is stored in the liver and muscle tissues in the form of glycogen.
Here, the body can’t process glucose due to lack of insulin. Sugars from your diet can’t clear the path into
cells. This leads to increase glucose in circulating blood and leads to problem.


We don’t know exact cause for type 1 diabetes. Due the different reasons, immune system
inappropriately attacks and destroys ꞵ cells production which is responsible for insulin in the pancreas.

Type-2 diabetes

In case of type 2 diabetes, your body cells are not able to respond to insulin and even your body may
also not produce enough insulin. Sometimes type 2 diabetes can leads to chronically high levels of blood


‘This type of diabetes may cause by the combination of genetics and life style factors. If the person in
over weighed or obese increases the risk of diabetes. This may transfer from generation to generation as it is
a cause of genetic.


It is a condition where people have higher than normal blood sugar level. If this is not treated properly it
can leads to type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. According to National Institute of Health (NIH),
prediabetes is reversible. Treatment for prediabetes is to change the life style like diet, exercise and

Gestational diabetes

In some women, development of high blood glucose levels during pregnancy this condition is called
gestational diabetes mellitus. It commonly occurs between 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy.


Gestational diabetes occurs due to changes in hormones during pregnancy. Here placenta produce
hormones that makes pregnant women’s cells sensitive to the effect of insulin.


Extreme hunger
Frequent urination
Blurry vision
Heavy Thirst


Persons suffering from diabetes, blood sugar level rises or fall based on the diet they consume. The
foods which are rich in carbohydrates (starchy or sugary) makes blood sugar levels raise rapidly have
contact with nutritionist who can help you by providing the balanced diet. Keep your blood sugars levels
steady, try to consume healthy diet. Such as Fruits, Vegetables, millets, Lean protein like poultry and fish
and whole grains.

Body Builders of Pre-Independence India. Source: Barbell and Muscle Control Exercises, Keshab Sen Gupta and Bishnu Charan Ghosh.
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